Certain aspects of natural selection like the rigid cull system of breeding based on working ability would produce similar results.
Actually, not quite. Natural selection is simply just that "natural". Meaning that there are no input by humans and nature does the culling and selecting of the strongest most virile animals. The ultimate expression of survival of the fittest. There are a couple aspects the play a major role in the outcome.. that is environment and function - all natural which is difficult to achieve in civilization.
Yes naturally (pun intended), "certain aspects" should cover that.
Purely academic but interesting enough, today, there is almost no where on our planet that has not been disturbed by man in some way or other. Man is playing a greater and greater role in what we considered "natural selection". It's effects are certainly more obvious in some situations than others but the full impact is not fully appreciated. A very graphic perhaps example is the wild elephant. Some populations are being born with shorter and shorter tusks and in some populations with none at all due to culling selection from poachers and a history of trophy hunting, herds are smaller........this example is quite dramatic and took no time at all. Remove the genes for "tuskers" from the population and the tusks start vanishing. There are of course many less obvious examples......
Nonetheless "environment and function" as in nature, both play an important part in what we consider or considered when selecting and culling to improve working domestic dog. For example we took climate into consideration, the environment, we took function into consideration, what the dog is intended to be used for, we take ability into consideration and select accordingly, just as nature does. If the breed didn't succeed it went extinct, we stopped breeding it. The long legs of an Ethiopian wolf are no mistake nor are the long legs of a Borzoi, one natural selection one man made, both for entirely different functions. These "aspects" of selection are as critical for a wild animals survival as they are to a domestic working dogs success and survival. Well they were.
Show bred dogs are bred to win at dog shows, not even the function of a healthy pet or dog is considered. Where they are as in "health testing" it's often just trying to avoid the problem of the manner in which they are selected and bred rather than to save the problem and change breeding practises. To change would mean they wouldn't win in the ring given the criteria set out by what wins. So they're caught in a descending spiral of ever more compounded genetic diseases and exaggerations. The Doberman is no exception.