I think Cesar uses positive reinforcement. He always says to give "love and affection" only when the dog is in a "calm & submissive state of mind." This to me is positive reinforcement! Using love and affection as a reinforcer of the desired behavior which is the calm and submissive state!
In the wild wolves and wild dogs don't get the treats and all the excited praise associated with today's positive reinforcement. And the pack usually follows a disciplined and fair hierarchy!
Remember, Cesar is not "training" the dogs! I'm sure that if he was teaching them sit, down, stay, come, etc. he would use treats and other positive reinforcement methods. He is only teaching the dogs to be calm and submissive by teaching the owners to behave accordingly.
In all honesty, when I see some dog trainers I think they overdo it with the praise and the extremely excited voices, etc. When I see him and his 40 plus dogs that include some rotts, ex fighting pits, etc. I have to hand it to him. I don't care how many degrees you have, Cesar knows his "sheit" and it seems to be a natural thing as opposed to others that have spent years going to school.
Just my two cents....
ps. I think the ones that trash Cesar are just jealous of his success!!